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Chapter 1: Election Commission of India

Election Commission of India is a Constitutional Body created under Article 324 of the Constitution of India. It was set up on 25th January 1950. The Constitution provided for the Election Commission to be either a single member or a multi-member body, depending upon the requirements from time to time. The first Chief Election Commissioner was appointed on 21st March 1950. Since its creation, the Commission was single member body except for brief period from 16th October 1989 to 1st January 1990 when it was converted into a three member body. Subsequently, since 1st October 1993, the Commission has been a three-member body, consisting of the Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Election Commission of India conducts elections to the offices of President & Vice President of India, both Houses of Parliament {Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha}, State Legislative Assemblies and State Legislative Councils.

The election machinery is headed by Chief Electoral Officer at the State/UT level, and by District Election Officer at the District level. Electoral Registration Officers and Returning Officers discharge their duties provided in the law at the constituency level. During elections, a large number of central and state government officials are deployed to work for election on duties related to polling/security/election observation etc. All such persons are deemed to be on deputation to the Commission and are subject to its control, supervision and discipline.

The President appoints Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners. They have tenure of six year, or up to the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. They enjoy the same status as the judges of the Supreme Court of India. The Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only through impeachment by Parliament. Election Commissioners including the Chief Election Commissioner have equal say in the decision making of the Commission.

1.1 Former Chief Election Commissioners/ Election Commissioners
1.2 Present Commission
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